Adaq Qurbani: It is to make a Mubah (neutral) act Wajib (Obligatory) upon oneself by vowing to perform the act in the honour of Allah (Subhanahu). It is permissible for a person to make a vow to perform any act of worship for the sake of Allah (Ta’ala). It is a means for a person to earn reward. The following statements are examples for vows: “I promise to fast tomorrow.” “I promise to give so much money to a poor person for the pleasure of Allah.” “I promise, I will sacrifice a Qurbani and distribute its meat to the poor.”
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To offer a Adaq Qurbani only becomes compulsory upon a person after he has clearly made his pledge to Allah (Ta’ala). If the oath is made in the form of a dua, then the slaughtering of the animal becomes obligatory once the dua has been answered. The ruling of this type of Qurbani is considered compulsory as all oaths to Allah (Ta’ala) must be carried out. In Surah Maida, Ayah 1 Allah (Ta’ala)says: “O you who have believed, fulfill contracts...” Meaning that it is necessary to fulfil one’s oaths. Allah (Ta’ala) praises those who fulfil their oaths in Surah Al-Insan, Ayah 7: “They fulfill vows...”.
When is Adaq Qurbani Offered?
In the Hanafi Madhab, a Adaq Qurbani may not be slaughtered untill the goal has been achieved or the dua has been answered. A person must fully comprehend the responsibility that comes with the vow that they are about to take and fulfil their part of the oath once their dua has been answered. The Qurbani must be offered as soon as the goal is achieved or the dua is answered. However, a Adaq Qurbani that is not slaughtered at the correct time must be made up for at soonest possible time. For example, if a person vows, “Today I will offer a qurbani and distribute its meat to the poor.”, but does not do so on that day, they are then obligated to slaughter the animal at the soonest possible time.
Who May Not Consume the Meat of a Adaq Qurbani?
The person who offers a Adaq Qurbani cannot consume its meat, neither can their spouse, their ascendants or descendants. The meat should be donated to the poor. If they consume the meat, they need to donate its value equal to what they have consumed in charity.